Birding Checklist for Nyungwe Forest National Park

Birding Checklist for Nyungwe Forest National Park

Birding Checklist for Nyungwe Forest National Park, Birdwatching in the Nyungwe rainforest of Rwanda. Where to Go Birding in Uganda in 2025, 2026? Nyungwe Forest National Park, nestled in the southwestern corner of Rwanda, is a birder’s paradise renowned for its remarkable avian diversity. Covering approximately 1,020 square kilometers, this vast montane rainforest is home to over 310 bird species, including 27 Albertine Rift endemics. Among the park’s prized sightings are the elusive Grauer’s swamp warbler, the striking Ruwenzori turaco, and the Albertine owlet. Birders can explore a variety of habitats within the park, from dense forests and bamboo groves to open swamps and heathlands, each offering unique bird-watching opportunities.

Key locations such as the Kamiranzovu Swamp, the Uwinka Overlook, and the Bigugu Mountain trail provide rich birding grounds, where enthusiasts might spot the regal blue turaco, the regal sunbird, or the handsome francolin. A well-prepared birding checklist for Nyungwe Forest National Park should include a diverse array of species across different bird families. Priority sightings include raptors like the African goshawk and the crowned eagle, forest specialists like the dusky crimsonwing and the red-collared mountain babbler, and vibrant sunbirds such as the green-headed sunbird and the purple-breasted sunbird.

Other notable mentions are the white-tailed crested flycatcher, the mountain masked apalis, and the barred long-tailed cuckoo. Birders should also be on the lookout for mixed-species foraging flocks, a common phenomenon in Nyungwe, where species such as the strange weaver, white-bellied crested flycatcher, and several greenbul species can be observed feeding together. Equipping oneself with a comprehensive field guide, a pair of binoculars, and a keen ear for bird calls will enhance the birding experience in this biodiversity hotspot, making every visit a memorable and fruitful venture.


Birding Trails in Nyungwe Forest National Park

Nyungwe Forest National Park offers a network of well-maintained birding trails that traverse its diverse habitats, providing birders with exceptional opportunities to observe a wide variety of bird species in their natural settings. Each trail offers unique landscapes and birding experiences, making Nyungwe a must-visit destination for ornithologists and nature enthusiasts alike. Exploring these trails with a knowledgeable guide can enhance the birding experience, as local guides are familiar with the best spots and bird calls, increasing the likelihood of spotting some of Nyungwe’s rarer and more elusive species.

Igishigishigi Trail

This popular canopy walk trail offers birders a unique vantage point from which to spot various bird species that dwell in the upper forest levels. The suspended walkway, about 60 meters above the ground, provides excellent opportunities to see birds like the Ruwenzori turaco, the great blue turaco, and various sunbirds.

Bigugu Trail

As one of the highest points in the park, this trail ascends to Bigugu Peak, providing birders with the chance to spot high-altitude species. The trail is known for sightings of the red-collared mountain babbler, the Ruwenzori batis, and the mountain masked apalis. The diverse vegetation along the trail also attracts various raptors and other forest specialists.

Kamiranzovu Marsh Trail

This trail leads to the Kamiranzovu Swamp, an excellent location for spotting wetland birds and other forest-edge species. Birders can expect to see the Grauer’s swamp warbler, the white-winged swamp warbler, and the African rail. The lush, marshy environment is also a prime habitat for various kingfishers and herons.

Uwinka Trail

Starting at the Uwinka Visitor Center, this trail offers a rich birding experience through primary montane forest. Species commonly observed here include the regal sunbird, the red-faced woodland warbler, and the barred long-tailed cuckoo. Mixed-species foraging flocks are a frequent sight, making this trail ideal for seeing a wide variety of birds in one outing.

Karamba Trail

Located in an area known for its historical significance as a former gold mine and quarry, this trail is now a birding hotspot. The open, regenerating forest attracts species such as the strange weaver, the black-and-white shrike-flycatcher, and the white-tailed blue flycatcher. It’s also a great trail for spotting the park’s primates, which often share their habitat with numerous bird species.

Irebero Trail

Offering panoramic views of the park’s diverse landscapes, the Irebero Trail provides birders with the chance to see forest-edge and canopy species. Notable birds along this trail include the Doherty’s bushshrike, the purple-breasted sunbird, and various species of greenbuls. The trail’s mix of habitats makes it a rewarding route for diverse bird sightings.


When to Go Birding in Nyungwe Forest National Park?

Ideal Birding Seasons

Nyungwe Forest National Park offers year-round birding opportunities, but certain seasons provide more favorable conditions for observing its rich avian diversity. The best time for birding is during the dry seasons, from mid-December to early February and from June to September. During these periods, the weather is generally more predictable, with less rainfall making the trails more accessible and enjoyable. The dry season coincides with the breeding period for many bird species, making it an excellent time to observe mating behaviors, nest building, and the presence of juvenile birds.

Bird Migration Periods

Another significant period for birders to consider is the migratory season, which typically occurs from November to April. During this time, Nyungwe Forest becomes a temporary home for a variety of migratory species escaping the colder climates of Europe and northern Asia. The influx of these migratory birds adds to the park’s already impressive resident bird population, offering birders a chance to see species that are not present year-round. Key migratory birds to look out for include various species of swallows, cuckoos, and warblers.

Weather Considerations

While Nyungwe Forest is a rainforest and can experience rain at any time, the wet seasons from March to May and October to November see the heaviest rainfall. These months can make birding more challenging due to muddy trails and reduced accessibility to some parts of the park. However, the wet season can also bring its rewards, as the forest is lush and vibrant, and certain bird species may be more active. Birders visiting during the wet season should be well-prepared with waterproof gear and be ready for variable weather conditions.

Time of Day

Regardless of the season, the best times of day for birding in Nyungwe Forest are early mornings and late afternoons. Birds are most active during these cooler periods, making it easier to spot and identify various species. Early morning birding excursions often yield sightings of birds engaging in feeding activities, singing, and other behaviors. Late afternoon birding can also be productive, as many species become active again after resting during the heat of midday.

Special Events and Birding Festivals

Occasionally, Nyungwe Forest National Park hosts special birding events and festivals that can enhance the birding experience. These events may coincide with key periods in the birding calendar, such as peak migratory times or breeding seasons. Participating in these events can provide birders with guided tours led by experts, educational workshops, and opportunities to meet fellow birding enthusiasts.

In conclusion, while Nyungwe Forest National Park offers birding opportunities throughout the year, the dry seasons and migratory periods are particularly rewarding times to visit. Birders should consider weather conditions, time of day, and special events to maximize their chances of a successful and enjoyable birding experience in this biodiverse hotspot.


A List of What to Carry for Birding in Nyungwe Forest National Park

Essential Gear

  • Binoculars: High-quality binoculars are crucial for spotting and identifying birds from a distance. A pair with 8x or 10x magnification and a wide field of view is recommended.
  • Field Guide: A comprehensive bird field guide specific to East Africa or Rwanda will help in identifying various species. Guides often include pictures, descriptions, and distribution maps.
  • Birding Apps: Smartphone apps that include bird calls and additional identification features can be extremely helpful.
  • Camera: A good camera with a telephoto lens is essential for capturing images of birds. A tripod or monopod can also help stabilize shots, especially in low light conditions.
  • Notebook and Pen: For noting down observations, bird behavior, and any other relevant information.
  • GPS Device or Map: Helps in navigating the trails and marking bird sightings.

Clothing and Personal Items

  • Lightweight, Breathable Clothing: Opt for neutral-colored, moisture-wicking clothing that blends into the natural environment. Long sleeves and pants are ideal to protect against insects and vegetation.
  • Rain Gear: A waterproof jacket and trousers are essential, especially since Nyungwe is a rainforest and can experience sudden showers.
  • Hat and Sunglasses: To protect against the sun, especially during midday birding sessions.
  • Sturdy Hiking Boots: Waterproof and with good grip, these will help navigate the often muddy and uneven trails.
  • Insect Repellent: To protect against mosquitoes and other insects.
  • Sunscreen: To protect against UV rays, even in the forest.

Provisions and Health Items

  • Water and Snacks: Carry enough water to stay hydrated, and pack energy-boosting snacks like nuts, dried fruits, and energy bars.
  • First Aid Kit: Include band-aids, antiseptic wipes, painkillers, any personal medications, and blister treatment.
  • Energy-Boosting Supplements: Such as electrolyte tablets or energy gels for longer hikes.

Additional Items

  • Backpack: A comfortable, lightweight, and waterproof backpack to carry all your gear.
  • Flashlight or Headlamp: Useful for early morning or late afternoon birding.
  • Wet Wipes and Hand Sanitizer: For hygiene purposes.
  • Extra Batteries and Memory Cards: For your camera and other electronic devices.
  • Walking Stick: Helpful for stability on rough terrain.
  • Guidebook or Cultural Information: To enhance your understanding of the local environment and communities.

Documentation and Permits

  • Identification and Permits: Carry personal identification and any necessary permits for park entry and birding activities.
  • Travel Insurance Details: Including emergency contact numbers.
  • By preparing with these items, birders can ensure a comfortable, productive, and enjoyable birding experience in the biodiverse landscapes of Nyungwe Forest National Park.


What Else to Do in Nyungwe Forest National Park Other than Birding?

Chimpanzee Tracking

One of the major attractions in Nyungwe Forest National Park, aside from birding, is chimpanzee tracking. The park is home to a significant population of chimpanzees, with groups habituated to human presence, allowing for close-up viewing opportunities. Early morning excursions led by experienced guides take visitors deep into the forest, where they can observe these fascinating primates in their natural habitat. The experience includes watching the chimpanzees feed, play, and interact with each other, offering a profound insight into their social structures and behaviors. This activity not only provides an adrenaline rush but also a deeper appreciation of primate conservation efforts.

Canopy Walkway

The canopy walkway in Nyungwe Forest National Park is a unique attraction that offers visitors a thrilling way to explore the forest from above. Suspended 60 meters above the ground and stretching over 160 meters, this walkway provides stunning aerial views of the forest canopy and the wildlife that inhabits it. Visitors can spot monkeys, birds, and other wildlife species from this elevated vantage point, making it a must-do activity for nature enthusiasts and adventure seekers. The walkway is accessible via the Igishigishigi Trail, and guided tours provide information on the forest’s ecology and the species seen along the way.

Nature Hikes and Trails

Nyungwe Forest is crisscrossed with an extensive network of well-marked hiking trails, each offering unique experiences and breathtaking scenery. Trails such as the Isumo Waterfall Trail, which leads to a stunning waterfall, or the Ngabwe Trail, which offers panoramic views of the forest, cater to various interests and fitness levels. These hikes allow visitors to explore different aspects of the park’s rich biodiversity, including rare plant species, various primates, and butterflies. Guided hikes can enhance the experience, providing insights into the forest’s ecology, medicinal plants, and conservation efforts.

Cultural Encounters

Visitors to Nyungwe Forest National Park can also engage with the local communities through cultural encounters. The Banda and Kitabi cultural villages offer immersive experiences where visitors can learn about the traditional ways of life of the indigenous people. Activities include traditional dance performances, basket weaving demonstrations, and visits to local homesteads. These cultural interactions provide a deeper understanding of the region’s heritage and the role of local communities in conserving the forest ecosystem.

Tea Plantation Tours

The areas surrounding Nyungwe Forest are known for their tea plantations, which visitors can tour to learn about tea cultivation and production. These tours typically include a walk through the lush tea fields, a visit to a processing factory, and a tasting session where visitors can sample various tea blends. The tea plantation tours offer a relaxing and informative break from the forest activities, showcasing the agricultural practices and economic importance of tea in the region.

Botanical and Colobus Monkey Tours

For those interested in flora and smaller fauna, botanical tours within Nyungwe Forest provide an in-depth look at the diverse plant life in the park. Expert guides lead tours focusing on the identification and uses of various plants, including those with medicinal properties. Additionally, the park is home to large troops of colobus monkeys, which can be observed in their natural habitat. These tours offer excellent photographic opportunities and a chance to learn about the unique behaviors and social structures of these primates.

Birding Walks

While birding is a primary activity in the park, specialized birding walks offer a focused experience for enthusiasts. These walks are often led by expert guides who can help visitors identify rare and endemic species, understand bird calls, and learn about avian ecology. These dedicated birding tours enhance the overall birding experience, providing detailed knowledge and increasing the likelihood of spotting elusive species.

In summary, Nyungwe Forest National Park offers a plethora of activities beyond birding, ensuring a comprehensive and enriching experience for all visitors. From thrilling chimpanzee tracking and adventurous canopy walks to cultural encounters and tea plantation tours, there is something to suit every interest and preference.


Birds to See in Nyungwe Forest National Park

Albertine Rift Endemics

  • Albertine Owlet (Glaucidium albertinum)
  • Ruwenzori Turaco (Ruwenzorornis johnstoni)
  • Grauer’s Swamp Warbler (Bradypterus graueri)
  • Red-collared Mountain Babbler (Kupeornis rufocinctus)
  • Handsome Francolin (Pternistis nobilis)
  • Stripe-breasted Tit (Melaniparus fasciiventer)
  • Yellow-eyed Black Flycatcher (Melaenornis ardesiacus)
  • Mountain Masked Apalis (Apalis personata)
  • Purple-breasted Sunbird (Nectarinia purpureiventris)
  • Regal Sunbird (Cinnyris regius)
  • Blue-headed Sunbird (Cyanomitra alinae)
  • Archer’s Robin-Chat (Cossypha archeri)
  • Dusky Crimsonwing (Cryptospiza jacksoni)


  • Crowned Eagle (Stephanoaetus coronatus)
  • African Goshawk (Accipiter tachiro)
  • Mountain Buzzard (Buteo oreophilus)

Forest Specialists

  • White-tailed Crested Flycatcher (Elminia albonotata)
  • Barred Long-tailed Cuckoo (Cercococcyx montanus)
  • Black-faced Rufous Warbler (Bathmocercus rufus)
  • Olive Pigeon (Columba arquatrix)
  • Black-and-white Shrike-flycatcher (Bias musicus)


  • Green-headed Sunbird (Cyanomitra verticalis)
  • Scarlet-chested Sunbird (Chalcomitra senegalensis)
  • Bronze Sunbird (Nectarinia kilimensis)
  • Other Notable Species
  • Great Blue Turaco (Corythaeola cristata)
  • White-bellied Crested Flycatcher (Elminia albiventris)
  • Strange Weaver (Ploceus alienus)
  • Doherty’s Bushshrike (Laniarius dohertyi)
  • Buff-throated Apalis (Apalis rufogularis)
  • Red-faced Woodland Warbler (Phylloscopus laetus)
  • White-winged Warbler (Bradypterus carpalis)
  • Yellow-bellied Waxbill (Coccopygia quartinia)
  • Yellow-streaked Greenbul (Phyllastrephus flavostriatus)
  • Shelley’s Greenbul (Arizelocichla masukuensis)
  • Cinnamon-chested Bee-eater (Merops oreobates)

Nyungwe Forest National Park’s diverse habitats make it a birding hotspot, with many opportunities to observe rare and endemic species. Birders are encouraged to use local guides to enhance their chances of seeing these and other fascinating birds.

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